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QAPonline Glossary
Name Description
A23187 A calcium ionophore   -,
ABP Acute Bacterial Prostatitis. An infection in the prostate gland which causes fever,sever pain in the lower back and genital area and burning, urgent and frequent urination. It is rare and can be treated with antibiotics   -,
ABP Androgen binding protein   -,
ABP A testis specific protein, synthesized by the Sertoli cells and secreted into the seminiferous tubular fluid.   -,
Abstinence No sexual activity   -,
Accuracy The extent to which the measured value of a quantity agrees with the accepted value for that quantity.   -,
Acini Any small saclike component of the gland.   -,
Acrocentric Chromosome where the two arms (p & q) are of differing lengths.   -,
Acromegaly A syndrome caused by an excessive amount of growth hormone   -,
Acrosin Typsin-like enzyme in the acrosome of a sperm head.   -,
Acrosome Organelle in the head of sperm containing trypsin like enzymes.   -,
Activation The signals sent within the oocyte cell that a sperm has fertilized the oocyte, or in the case of cloning, the molecular mimicry of the sperms activity to initiate development.   -,
Activation The signals sent within the oocyte cell that a sperm has fertilized the oocyte, or in the case of cloning, the molecular mimicry of the sperm’s activity to initiate development.   -,
Activation Initiation of embryogenesis by alleviating the cell cycle arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII) of mature mammalian eggs   -,
Activin A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the Leydig cells and stimulates FSH   -,
Adenoma A benign epithelial tumor having a glandular origin and structure.   -,
Adenomyosis Benign invasive growth of the endometrium into the muscular layer of the uterus.   -,
Adhesion In infertility, the sticking of ovaries, tubes, uterus, bowel and abdominal lining to one or more of each other so as to affect fertility. May follow pelvic surgery, tubal infections or endometriosis.   -,
Adhesions Fibrous tissue that forms between pelvic organs usually as a result of trauma, inflammation or injury.   -,
Adhesions Scar tissue from infection, endometriosis, surgery or bleeding which can distort or cause dysfunction of organs   -,
Adipokines Products of adipose secreory activity   -,
Adiponectin A protein produced almost exclusively by adipocytes   -,
Adjuvant A substance added to a drug to increase or aid its effect.   -,
Adnexum Attached to the uterus eg fallopian tubes, ovary.   -,
Adolescence The period in development between the onset of puberty and adulthood.   -,
Adrenal Latin: AD (near) + RENES (kidney)   -,
Adrenal glands Glands that sit on top of the kidneys   -,
AFC Antral Follicle Count   -,
Affinity Affinity (AH-fin-eh-tee) – The strength of reaction between antibody and antigen at a single antigenic site.   -,
AFP A protein found in the bloodstream of some men with testicular cancer   -,
Age of onset The age at which phenotypic consequences first appear in an individual with a particular genotype   -,
Agglutination The sticking together of large numbers of motile spermatozoa due to the presence of anti-sperm antibodies.   -,
Aggretation Clumping of usually dead spermatozoa together with other cells and debris ins semen.   -,
Agonadism Consequence of early fetal testicular degeneration   -,
AH The partial or complete removal of the zona pellucida by zona drilling or by enzymatic means, the rationale being that this will enhance the ability of a blastocyst to hatch.   -,
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome   -,
AIH Artificial Insemination with husbands sperm   -,
Albumin A major protein found in blood   -,
Alcohol Inhibits the zinc-dependent conversion of vitamin A to bioactive retinol in the testis   -,
Allantois Greek: ALLOS(sausage) + EIDOS (form,appearance)   -,
Allele An alternative form of a gene at a particular locus   -,
Allele frequency The proportion of a particular allele in a particular population.   -,
Allodynia `other pain`, is a painful response to a usually non-painful stimulus and can be either static or mechanical.   -,
Allogeneic Biological materials such as genes, proteins, cells, tissues, or organs used for transplantation and derived from another donor individual of the same species as the recipient.   -,
Allopoietic One with an apparent requirement for external stimulation.   -,
Alopecia Hair loss   -,
Alpha-fetoprotein A protein found in the bloodstream of some men with testicular cancer   -,
Amenorrhoea Absence of menstrual bleeding   -,
Amenorrhoea Absence of menstruation.   -,
Aminocentesis A method of obtaining fetal cells for prenatal diagnosis usually done about the 16th week of pregnancy and involves the removal of amniotic fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus.   -,
Amniocentesis The removal of a small amount of fluid using and ultrasound from the fetal sac to check for fetal chromosomes.   -,
Amnion Greek: AMNION (fetal membrane)   -,
Amnion Inner of the membranes lining the fetal sac.   -,
Amorphous Diffuse, undefined sperm head - type of sperm morphology.   -,
Amorphous Term used to describe a form of sperm morphology with bizarre forms or multiple defects.   -,
Amphidiploid An organism or cell having a diploid set of chromosomes from each parent   -,
Ampulla Secretory head of the fallopian tube.   -,
Ampulla Latin: AMPULLA (a flask or vessel swelling in the middle).   -,
Ampullary Minor accessory gland of the male reproductive system.   -,
Ana GREEK prefix: upward, throughout, frequently   -,
Anabolism Synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones   -,
Anaphase Stage of mitosis and meiosis during which either bivalent (meiosis 1) or sister chromatids (mitosis, meiosis 2) separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.   -,
Anastomosis In surgery, the connection made, usually by stitching, between two separated ends of a tubular structure.   -,
Anastomosis Greek: ANASTOMOEIN (to bring to a mouth, cause to communicate).   -,
Andro GREEK: ANDROS (male)   -,
Androgen A hormone such as testosterone responsible for the development of male characteristics   -,
Androgens Male sex hormones.   -,
Andrologist Andrologist: A physician-scientist who performs laboratory evaluations of male fertility.   -,
Andrology The study of the functions and diseases peculiar to males, especially of the reproductive organs. The equivalent to gynaecology for women.   -,
Anejaculation Failure to obtain ejaculation.   -,
Aneuoplidy The presence of extra or missing chromosomes in cells.   -,
Aneuploidy A condition where there is a loss or gain of chromosomes resulting in an alteration to the normal complement within a cell.   -,
Angiogenesis Formation of new blood vessels out of preexisting capillaries. The process by which blood vessels grow to supply blood to cells, organs and tissues (including tumors).   -,
Animalcules van Leeuwenhoeks original name for spermatozoa   -,
Annulus Junction between the midpiece and the principle piece of a human spermatozoon   -,
Anorchism Condition arising from a late fetal testicular regression associated with a male pheontype but where the testes are absent.   -,
Anorchism Sometimes called the `vanishing testis syndrome`.   -,
Anorgasmia Failure to achieve an orgasm   -,
Anovulation The absence of ovulation. A period may still occur.   -,
Anovulation The absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post-maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary   -,
Anovulation Anovulation: The failure to ovulate; ovulatory failure.   -,
ANP Antral Natriuretic Peptide   -,
Antegrade ejaculation Normal forward ejaculation   -,
Anteverted Forward Uterine position   -,
Anteverted Tilted forward; the most common position for the uterus.   -,
Antibodies Protein made in the body in response to foreign substance; attacks foreign substance and protects against infection   -,
Antibody In infertility, a compound in the blood, mucus or semen which interferes with normal sperm function.   -,
Antibody Antibody (AN-tee-BAWD-ee) – An immunoglobulin capable of specific combination with the antigen that caused its production in a susceptible animal.   -,
Anticipation The decreased age of onset and/or increased severity of an inheritied disorder as it passes from one generation to the next.   -,
Anticodon In a transfer RNA molecule, a nucleotide triplet whose base sequence is complementary to that of a particular messenger RNA thereby allowing recognition and binding to the appropriate codon.   -,
Antigen Antigen (ANT-eh-jen) – Any substance foreign to the body that elicits a specific immune response.   -,
Antigen Antigens are generally foreign substances such as toxins or bacteria that cause the body to react with an immune system response.   -,
Antimetabolites Anticancer drugs that closely resemble substances needed by cells for normal growth   -,
Antiserum Antiserum (ANT-tee-seer-um) – Blood from an immunized host presumably possessing antibodies of interest as well as other serum proteins.   -,
Antral Layer of granulosa cell furthest from the basement membrane and closer to the antrum   -,
Antrum Fluid filled cavity inside a growing and maturing ovarian follicle.   -,
Antrum Fulid filled space.   -,
Anuria A condition in which the body stops making urine   -,
Anus Opening at the lower end of the rectum through which stools are passed   -,
AOT Acridine orange staining technique.   -,
AOT Acridine orange staining technique.   -,
Aplasia Germ Cell Aplasia (Sertoli Cell Only): An inherited condition in which the testicles have no germ cells but normal Leydig cells. They will develop secondary sex characteristics.   -,
Aplasia Failure to develop. If something develops and then wastes away, that is atrophy.   -,
Apocrine Type of secretion where cells bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane bound vesicles.   -,
Apolar Inside cells.   -,
Apoptosis A mode of programmed cellular death based on a genetic mechanism causing a series of cellular, morphologicaland biochemical alterations, leading the cell to suicide without an inflammatory response.   -,
Apoptosis Programmed cell death   -,
AR Acrosome Reaction [Abrev]   -,
ARIC Acrososome reaction ionophore challenge   -,
Arms The two segments of a chromosome, called the p (short) and the q (long) that are defined by the position of the centromere.   -,
ART Assisted Reproductive Technology   -,
ASA Antisperm Antibodies   -,
Ascites A buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity, can cause swelling and the feeling of being bloated.   -,
Ascities Abdominal Fluid   -,
Ashermans Ashermans Syndrome: A condition where the uterine walls adhere to one another. Usually caused by uterine inflammation.   -,
Aspermia No ejaculate   -,
Aspiration Gentle suction used to remove an egg from a follicle   -,
Aspiration cycle Initiated ART cycle in which one or more follicles are punctured and aspirated irrespective of whether or not oocytes are retrieved.   -,
Assisted hatching An in vitro procedure in which the zona pellucida of an embryo (usually at eight-cell stage or a blastocyst) is perforated by chemical, mechanical or laser-assisted methods to assist separation of the blastocyst from the zona pellucida.   -,
Assisted Hatching The partial or complete removal of the zona pellucida by zona drilling or by enzymatic means, the rationale being that this will enhance the ability of a blastocyst to hatch.   -,
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) All treatments or procedures that include the in vitro handling of human oocytes and sperm or embryos for the purpose of establishing a pregnancy. This includes, but is not limited to, IVF and transcervical embryo transfer, gamete intra-Fallopian transfer, zygote intra-Fallopian transfer, tubal embryo transfer, gamete and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte and embryo donation and gestational surrogacy. ART does not include assisted insemination (artificial insemination) using sperm from either a wo   -,
Asthenozoospermia Less than the reference values for motility   -,
Asymptomatic A disease process that does not have symptoms.   -,
Atherosclerosis A process that results in the accumulation of plagues or deposits in arteries that may lead to obstruction   -,
Atresia Degeneration and readsorption of cellulur structures such as in follicle demise.   -,
Attenuated Stretched out, lengthened.   -,
Autocrine Molecules which act upon the cell secreting them   -,
Autoimmune An illness caused by, or associated with, the development of an immune response to normal body tissues.   -,
Autologous Biological materials such as cells, tissues, or organs used for transplantation and derived from the recipient himself.   -,
Autonomy An ethical principle in which value is given to maximising an individual`s contribution to the making of decisions that affect them.   -,
Autopoietic One with no apparent requirement for external stimulation.   -,
Autosome Any nuclear chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.   -,
Avidity Strength of binding, usually of a small molecule with multiple binding sites by a larger, particularly the binding of a complex antigen by an antibody or a hormone to its receptor.   -,
Avidity Avidity (ah-VID-eh-tee) – A measure of the overall strength of binding of the entire antibody-antigen complex.   -,
Axenome A 9+2 microtubular arrangement found in cillia and flagella   -,
AZF Azoospermia factor   -,
Azoospermia The complete lack of spermatozoa in the ejaculate.   -,
Azoospermia The absence of sperm in the seminal fluid due to a blockage in the sperm ducts or impairment of sperm production.   -,
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